Age, growth and mortality parameters of Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Mullidae) in Iskenderun Bay, northeastern Mediterranean

Erdogan CICEK


The objectives of this study were to determine the age, growth, mortality and exploitation of a commercially important fish of northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mullus barbatus from the Karatas coast of Iskenderun Bay during September 2002 and April 2003. A total of 212 specimens of red mullet were collected by monthly sampling using traditional bottom trawl net by commercial vessel (Coskun Reis, 22m length and 285HP) from 3 stations in three depth contours in ≤20m, 20-50m and 50-100m, respectively. The age of M. barbatus specimens was estimated by examining sagittal otoliths and it found that the age composition varied from I to V age classes. The mean total length and total weight values was calculated as 10.07±1.83cm and 12.04±8.22g, respectively and the calculated length-weight relationship was W=0.0072*L3.1618. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L¥= 21.98cm, k= 0.194 year-1 and to= -1.168 year. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) was 1.39, the natural mortality (M) was 0.45 and the fishing mortality (F) was estimated to be 0.93. The exploitation rate (E) was calculated as 0.67 using value of M and F. As a result of the analysis, the population of M. barbatus from the Karatas coast of Iskenderun Bay was exploited over the optimum level because of overfishing pressure.


Goatfish, Red mullet, Population dynamics, Length-weight relationship, Mortality, Exploitation rate.

Full Text:



Anonymous. 1993. Research on the bottom fish stocks source of Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Turkish Republic, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair.

Anonymous. 2010. AdriaMed "Scientific cooperation to support responsible fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Mullus barbatus. FAO Regional Project., 02.03.2010.

Avşar, D.; Özyurt C. & Çiçek, E. 2003. Determination of traditional Mediterranean type bottom trawl net selectivity in Iskenderun Bay. Cukurova University. Research Found, Project No: SÜF2002BAP7, Adana, 29p.

Beverton, R.J.H. & Holt, S.J. 1957. On the dynamics of exploited fish population. Fish. Invest. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Food G.B. (2 Sea Fish) 19: 533p.

Bingel, F. 1987. Final report of the quantitative fishery project in the coastal fishing grounds of the North-Eastern Mediterranean. Project No: 80070011, Içel, Turkey. 312 p.

Bingel, F.; Özsoy, E. & Ünlüata, Ü. 1993. A review of the state of the fisheries and the environment of the Northeastern Mediterranean (Northern Levantine Basin), studies and reviews. General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean, FAO Rome, No: 65, 74p.

Çelik, Ö. & Torcu, H. 2000. Biology on red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758) in Edremit Bay Aegean Sea. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 24: 287-295. (In Turkish)

Çiçek, E. 2006. Study on the economically important species trawled from Karataş (Adana) coasts. Cukurova University. Institute of Science, PhD Thesis, Adana.

Çoral, S. 1988. A Preliminary study biology and population dynamics of mullet (Mullus barbatus L.) in the Aegean Sea. Dokuz Eylül University, Institute of Marine Science and Technology, MSc thesis, İzmir.

Ehrhardt, N.M. & Ault, J.S. 1992. Analysis of two length-based mortality models applied to bounded catch length frequencies. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121: 115-122.

FAO. 2010. FishStat Plus. Fishery Statistics programme. Statistical Databases. /statistics/programme/3.1.1/en, 02.03.2010.

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. 2009. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (10/2009).

Genç, Y. 2000. Population parameters and bio-ecological features of the red mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Ess., 1927) stocks from the Eastern Black Sea Coast. PhD thesis, Black Sea Technical University, Trabzon.

Genç, Y.; Mutlu, C.; Aydin, I.; Zengin, B. & Tabak, I. 2002. Determination of the fishing effects on the bottom fish source in Eastern Black Sea. Turkish Republic, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, TAGEM/IY/97/17/03/006, Trabzon, 114p.

Gonçalves, J.M.S.; Bentes, L.; Coelho, R.; Correia, C.; Lino, P.G.; Monteiro, C.C.; Ribeiro, J. & Erzini, K. 2003. Age and growth, maturity, mortality and yield-per-recruit for two banded bream (Diplodus vulgaris Geoffr.) from the south coast of Portugal. Fisheries Research 62: 349-359.

Gücü, A.C. & Bingel, F. 1994a. Red mullet fisheries in Northeastern Mediterranean. Aegean University Journal of Faculty of Science 16: 1027-1035.

Gücü, A.C. & Bingel, F. 1994b. Trawlable species assemblages on the continental shelf of the northeastern Levant Sea (Mediterranean) with an emphasis on lessepsian migration. Acta Adriatica 35: 83-100.

Gurbet, R.; Hossucu, H.; Ilkyaz, A.T. & Ozekinci, U. 1997. The study on the comparison of selectivity of 40 and 44 mm mesh size in the trouser bottom trawls. Mediterranean Fisheries Congress, 9-11 April 1997, Izmir, Turkey, 77-91. (in Turkish)

Hekimoğlu, M.A. 1992. Study on the population parameters on the red mllet (Mullus barbatus L., 1758) in Izmir Bay. Aegean University. Institute of Science, MSc thesis, İzmir.

Holden, M.J. & Raitt, D.F.S. 1974. Manual of Fisheries Science Part 2-Methods of Resource Investigation and their Application. FAO, Rome.

İşmen, A. & İşmen, P. 2001. Reproduction biology, fecundity and population dynamics of species belonging to Mullidae family. M.K.U. Research Foundation, No. 99/E-3702, 27p. (In Turkish)

Joksimovic, A. 2005. Population dynamic of red mullet Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758 in the Montenegrin shelf. PhD thesis. Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade.

Jukić-Peladić, S.; Vrgoč, N.; Dadić, V.; Krstulović-Šifner, S.; Piccinetti, C. & Marčeta, B. 1999. Spatial and temporal distribution of some demersal fish populations in the Adriatic Sea described by GIS technique. Acta Adriatica 40: 55-66.

Kinacigil, H.T. 1994. Study on the distribution and abundance of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) in Gülbahçe Bay. Aegean University Journal of Faculty of Science 16: 1013-1025.

Kinacigil, H.T.; İlkyaz, A.T.; Akyol, O.; Metin, G.; Çira, E. & Ayaz, A. 2001. Growth parameters of red mullet (Mullus barbatus L., 1758) and seasonal cod-end selectivity of traditional bottom trawl nets in İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea). Acta Adriatica 42: 113-123.

Lök, A.; Tokaç, A.; Tosunoğlu, Z.; Metin, C. & Ferro, R.S.T. 1997. The effect of different cod-end design on bottom trawl selectivity in Turkish fisheries of the Aegean Sea. Fisheries Research 36: 1-14.

Mert, I.; Doğan, M.; Türkmen, M.; Karataş, B. & Yavuzkan, Y. 1983. Study on spawning period of economical important fish species caught from Antalya Bay. Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Fisheries, Project no. 82-A050050-7, Antalya, 34p (in Turkish).

Metin, C. 1995. Affects of square mesh on modern deep trawl nets selectivity. Phd Thesis, Ege University, Izmir, 77p.

Özbilgin, H.; Tosunoğlu, Z.; Bilecenoğlu, M. & Tokaç, A. 2004. Population parameters of Mullus barbatus in İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea), using length frequency analysis. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 231-233.

Özyurt, C.E. 2003. The Determination of mesh size for some commercially important demersal fish species captured by deep trawl net at Babadıllimanı Bight (Silifke-Mersin). PhD thesis, Cukurova University, Adana, 124p. (In Turkish)

Relini, G.; Bertrand, J. & Zamboni, A. 1999. Synthesis of the knowledge on bottom fishery resources in Central Mediterranean (Italy and Corsica). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 6(suppl. 1): 314-322

Somarakis, S. & Machias, A. 2002. Age, growth and bathymetric distribution of red pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) on the Cretan shelf (eastern Mediterranean). Journal of Marine Biological Assosiation U.K 82: 149-160.

Sparre, P.; Ursin, E. & Venema, S.C. 1989. Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assesment-Part II: Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No: 306/2, Rome, 429p.

Şahin, T.; Başar, S. & Canbazoğlu, Ş. 1992. Research on the Economically Important Marine Species (Red mullet). Turkish Republic, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, Trabzon, Project No: 82A040030, 9p.

Tokaç, A.; Lök, A.; Metin, C.; Tosunoğlu, Z. & Ulaş, A. 1995. Selectivity research for demersal fish resource in trawl fishery. Tubitak, Project No: DEBAG-105, Izmir, 80p. (in Turkish)

Tokaç, A.; Özbilgin, H. & Tosunoğlu, Z. 2004. Effect of PA and PE material on codend selectivity in Turkish bottom trawl. Fisheries Research 67: 317-327.

Tosunoğlu, Z. & Tokaç, A. 1997. Improvement of deep trawl net selectivity. Fisheries Congress, 9–11 April 1997, Izmir, Turkey 103-109. (In Turkish)

Türeli, C. & Erdem, Ü. 1997. The growth performance of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758) and brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis (Richardson, 1848)) from the coastal region of Adana Province (İskenderun Bay, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology 21: 329-334. (In Turkish)

Ursin, E. 1967. A mathematical model of some aspects of fish growth, respiration, and mortality. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 24: 2355-2453.

Voliani, A.; Abealla, A. & Auteri, R. 1998. Some considerations on the growth performance of Mullus barbatus. In: Lleonart, J. (Ed.). Dynamique des populations marines = Marine populations dynamics, Zaragoza, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, v. 35, CIHEAM-IAMZ,. Deuxième Réunion du Groupe de Travail DYNPOP, 1996/10/02-05, Genova (Italy), 358p.

Vrgoč, N. 2000. Struktura i dinamika pridnenih zajednica riba Jadranskog mora. Disertacija. Sveučilište u Zagrebu.


  • There are currently no refbacks.